Brutte notizie dalla Polonia TER

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Brutte notizie dalla Polonia TER

Messaggio Da Erasmus il Ven Gen 01, 2016 5:05 pm

Il nuovo parlamento polacco  – dove la maggioranza è tornata al partito "Diritto  e Giustizia"  (PiS) di Kaczynski – ha approvato la proposta di legge che modifica profondamente la "Corte Costiuzionale".

Fino ad ora perché siano valide le sentenze della Corte Costituzionale polacca (che consta di 15 giudici) occorre che 
a) Gli astenuti non siano più di 6 (ossia che esprimano un proprio giudizio almeno 9 giudici su 15).
b) I favorevoli siano almeno uno in più dei contrari. [Maggioranza semplice].

Con la nuova legge (decisa in parlamento su richiesta del governo – e in ultima analisi per volontà di Jaroslaw Kczynski che non si è affatto messo da parte come ha dichiarato –), perché la sentenza sia valida occorre
a) Che gli astenuti non siano più di due (ossia che votino SI' o NO almeno 13  giudici su 15).
b) Che i favorevoli non siano meno di due terzi dei votanti.

L'aspetto negativo di questa riforma è completato dal fatto che al governo spetta il diritto di nominare 5 giudici; ma in precedenza il governo si limitava ad approvare quelli cooptati dalla stessa Corte Costituzionale. Ma è successo che le elezioni politiche cedessero mentre ancora non erano stati convalidati dal governo i nuovi cinque giudici; e con la vittoria del partito di Kaczynski quei cinque giudici precedentemente già decisi ma non ancora ufficialmente nominati sono stati ricusati dal nuovo governo e sostituiti con altri cinque scelti dal governo stesso (ossia, in ultima analisi, da Jaroslaw Kaczyski).

L'andata in vigore della nuova legge (che in realtà è una radicale riforma costituzionale) paralizza di fatto la Corte Costituzionale perché, vuoi per aperta astensione di almeno tre filo-governalivi, vuoi per voto contrario di almeno un terzo dei votanti, diventa estrema mente improbabile che ci siano sentenze valide.

Il pericolo di partalisi della Corte Costituzionale è stato dapprima denunciato (appena profilatesi le intenzioni del nuovo governo) dalla stessa Corte Costituzionale.

Successivamente, la commissione europea ha auspicato che la legge non entri mai in vigore e ha diffidato il governo polacco da comportamenti intrinsecamente antidemocratici (tendenti cioè a permettere decisioni governative contrarie all'attuale standard democratico dell'Unione e allo spirito dell'Ultimo trattato entrato in vigore – "Trattato di Lisbona", in cui è recepita la "Carta fondamentale dell'Unione Europea", già dfecisa a Nizza nel 2000 ma in vigore solo dalla fine del 2009–).

Ma questo nuovo governo risponde picche ai Commissari Europei ... e sembra addirittura godere particolarmente nell'avere l'occasione di farlo.

Fatto sta che la Polonia si sta avviando ad un sistema politico zeppo di autoritarismo e di populismo nazionalista,  sullo stile del governo ungherese di Orbán. C'è però una differenza importante tra i due governi (entrambi ioernazionalisti): il governo polacco resta fortemente anti-russo (e in particolare anti-Putin), mentre il governo di Orbán sembra addirittura abbagliato da Putin (di cui Orbán elogia la politica internazionle, oltre a vantarne la personale amicizia).

Trascrivo due articoli ds EUobserver.com a riguardo della legge di riforma della Corte Costituzionale e degli attriti con la Commissione Europea da essa causati.

––> https://euobserver.com/justice/131665
EU urges Poland to halt constitutional reform

Timmermans: 'I would expect that this law is not finally adopted' (Photo: European Commission)

By ANDREW RETTMAN 

BRUSSELS, 24. DEC 2015, 13:47

The European Commission has urged Poland not to adopt a new law, which, it says, could “undermine” the constitutional order.

Frans Timmermans, the commission vice-president, in a letter on Wednesday (23 December) said the bill could see “the integrity, stability, and proper functioning of the national constitutional court undermined.”

“I would expect that this law is not finally adopted or at least not put into force until all questions regarding the impact … on the independence and the functioning of the Constitutional Tribunal have been fully and properly assessed,” he said.

The letter was leaked the same day by German broadcaster ARD.

Timmermans wrote after Polish MPs, on Tuesday, voted through changes to the tribunal, which, critics say, will help the ruling Law and Justice (PiS) party extend political control.

Kaczynski and 'housekeeper' PM Szydlo (Photo: pis.org.pl)

The law makes it harder for the tribunal to make decisions, by raising the bar from a simple majority to two-thirds, and by raising the quorum from nine out of 15 judges to 13, among other provisions.

It was also voted by the upper house in the early hours of Thursday.

It comes after PiS quashed the nomination of five new judges by the previous government to install its own people.
Timmermans noted that, according to the Polish tribunal’s judgements, three of the five judges should have stayed in place. But PiS is free to change two nominations.

He urged Polish authorities to keep him informed on “the constitutional situation” and to “work closely” with the Venice Commission, an advisory body in the Council of Europe in Strasbourg.

Timmermans addressed his letter to the Polish foreign minister, Witold Waszczykowski, and justice minister, Zbigniew Ziobro.

Both are PiS hawks with little love for EU institutions.

But Waszczykowski, on Thursday, said he has requested a Venice Commission opinion. Ziobro, on Wednesday evening, said he’d be “happy to speak with the [EU] commissioner to clarify the circumstances” of the reforms.

PiS says changes are needed because the tribunal serves the opposition party, Civic Platform.

The PiS chairman, Jaroslaw Kaczynski, has called the judges “a band of cronies.” But his own status is part of the problem.

The party chief de facto controls the PiS president, Andrzej Duda, and PiS prime minister Beata Szydlo.

In a telling sign, TV cameras, during the PiS election campaign, filmed Szydlo buying milk for Kaczynski, a confirmed bachelor, prompting jokes that the PM is his “housekeeper.”

For his part, Luxembourg’s foreign minister Jean Asselborn, whose country chairs the rotating EU presidency, on Wednesday kept up the international criticism.

He told the Reuters news agency the situation “reminds” him of “the path of .. dictatorial regimes.”

He said if PiS weakens the Constitutional Tribunal, it will also weaken the independence of ordinary courts.

“Whoever says that criticism [of Poland] by its European partners is not appropriate doesn't understand Europe,” he said.

RELATED STORIES
Judicial dispute prompts rallies, counter-rallies in Poland
Polish 'coup' dispute threatens German relations
Poland ignores EU appeal on constitutional reform
Polish government takes on public media
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––> https://euobserver.com/justice/131683
Poland ignores EU appeal on constitutional reform

The tribunal is designed to keep Polish governments in check (Photo: Lukas Plewnia)

By ANDREW RETTMAN 

BRUSSELS, 29. DEC 2015, 09:29

Polish president Andrzej Duda has defied the European Commission by signing a controversial law on constitutional reform.

The president, himself a lawyer, told press in Warsaw on Monday (28 December) he did it after “careful reflection” because the changes “help to strengthen the position of the Constitutional Tribunal.”

“If the tribunal is to make decisions on laws adopted by parliament, it should be by a higher majority. Why? Because they’re lawyers, lawyers who have different points of view, both legally and ideologically,” he said.

“I find it difficult to believe how, until now, de facto three judges on the tribunal could decide the fate of a law adopted by the parliamentary majority.”

Duda, a lawyer by profession, accused of taking instructions from Kaczynski (Photo: Andrzej Hrechorowicz)

The changes make it harder for the tribunal to make decisions, by raising the bar from a simple majority to two-thirds, and by raising the quorum from nine to 13 out of 15 judges.

It also increases the lag - to up to six months - before they vet new legislation.

The ruling Law and Justice (PiS) party, which won elections in October, says reforms are needed because the judges are “cronies” of the opposition who will block its legislative programme.

But independent jurists and watchdogs, such as the Council of Europe and the European Commission, say the changes weaken a vital check on politicians’ power.

he commission vice-president Frans Timmermans, in a letter on 23 December, urged Polish authorities to put off the reforms until the debate is settled.

He said the changes risk seeing “the integrity, stability, and proper functioning of the national constitutional court undermined.”

His spokeswoman said in Brussels on Monday the commission will discuss Poland on 13 January.

The Polish opposition has reacted furiously to developments.

Grzegorz Schetyna, Poland’s former foreign minister, from the centre-right Civic Platform (PO) party, told the RadioZet broadcaster on Tuesday he has “worrying signals” from the US that it may call off a Nato summit, due in Warsaw in July, to punish PiS.

Slawomir Neumann, the PO chairman, said Duda’s decision shows that he “isn’t an independent politician.”

Mateusz Kijowski, from the Committee for the Defence of Democracy, a group which organised anti-PiS protests in recent weeks, told British daily The Guardian: “This is the end of democracy in Poland.”

Duda’s signature, the bill’s final act of adoption, comes after a previous PiS decision to remove five constitutional judges and replace them with loyalists, which was also criticised by Timmermans.

Polish media report PiS is planning, in the new year, to restrict foreign ownership of media and to extend political control over the prosecutor’s service.

Meanwhile, Neumann’s remark - that Duda isn’t independent - highlights concern the PiS party chairman, Jaroslaw Kaczynski, controls both Duda and the Polish PM, Beata Szydlo, despite not being elected to office.

RELATED STORIES

EU urges Poland to halt constitutional reform
Polish government curtails constitutional tribunal's powers
Polish government takes on public media
Poland passes media law, ignores EU again
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Erasmus

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Re: Brutte notizie dalla Polonia TER

Messaggio Da ART- il Sab Gen 02, 2016 8:44 pm

Conoscendo Kaczynski la cosa non mi stupisce per niente.
Polonia e Ungheria sono ormai del tutto impantanate nell'autoritarismo fascio-nazionalistoide e allo stato attuale c'è poco che si possa fare dall'esterno per aiutarle.
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Re: Brutte notizie dalla Polonia TER

Messaggio Da Erasmus il Ven Lug 29, 2016 5:49 am

La Commissione Europea dà un ultimato al governo polacco: «Ripristinare lo stato di diritto [ora compromesso] entro tre mesi
L'ho letto ieri su un articolo di EUobserver (segnalatomi per news-letter)

–––>Cresce la tensione tra UE e Polonia

EU confrontation with Poland escalates

27. JULThe EU commission said there is systemic threat to rule of law in Poland and gave new ultimatum. Poland said commission is "losing its authority". Read on »

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